This chapter provides a contemporary overview of diabetes. Dietary patterns and nutrients that can improve glucose-insulin-energy function are emphasized. Strategic food choices and adequate essential nutrients improve outcomes in people with the continuum from metabolic syndrome to diabetes. Cellular metabolic homeostasis is disrupted long before diabetes becomes clinically apparent by elevated blood glucose or insulin. A direct consequence of these metabolic disturbances is free radical oxidative damage secondary to nutrient defi cits detailed in this chapter.
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